E. Hartnack, Paris, Stativ VIII, 1860-1864
Model history: This instrument reflects the early design of the “continental microscope”. It was produced by one of the most distinguished microscope makers of the era. Script signature on the draw tube reads: "E. Hartnack 21 Place Dauphin Paris", dating it to 1860-64. This model is a stand VIII of the company. This specific microscope is equipped with historically important components: in a green leather coated case there are three Hartnack objectives nos. 4, 7 (water immersion) & 9 (water immersion), and three matching aperture disks. One No. 4 ocular, goniometer and substage nicol prism. Hartnack was a pioneer of immersion objectives and his water immersion lenses brought him much reputation amongst scientists.
Edmund Hartnack (1826-91) was a Prussian microscope maker who studied his craft in Berlin. In 1857, Hartnack joined the instrument-making firm of Georges Oberhauser in Paris and enjoyed a reputation for high quality products. Hartnack established his workshop at 21 Place Dauphin in Paris in 1860. In 1864 he joined forces with the Polish astronomer and mathematician Adam Prazmowski, who became the production manager. Hartnack had to leave Paris during the French-Prussian war of 1870 and maintained his factory in Potsdam, leaving his partner Prazmowski, in Paris. The Parisian branch was eventually taken over by Nachet et Fils.
Scientific work made with this model: This model enjoyed popularity among 19th century scientists, including Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch who used it during his earlier research years, and also Sigmund Freud who preferred Hartnack's microscopes. It was offered already in the early 1860s and was equipped with the hard-rubber-plate for the stage in the early 1870s. A similar Stand VIII was used also by Sigmund Freud.
References: Billings: P. 219, Fig. 432, p. 221, Fig. 438; SML: A601304; Royal Museum Edinburgh: inv. 1979.85-87; Boerhaave: V07182, V07407; Museo Galileo 3268; Nuttall 1979: 57; Mappes; Univ. E. Carolina No. 48.F5;